Wintertime Supercooled Liquid Water Flux over the Grand Mesa, Colorado
AbstractSupercooled liquid water (SLW) and wind measurements were made over the Grand Mesa of western Colorado during the period late January through March, 1986. Observations were obtained with an instrumented aircraft, a tower-mounted icing rate meter, and an acoustical sounder. These data were used to estimate the flux of SLW over the Mesa top, just upwind of the lee subsidence zone, during nine aircraft flights. The SLW flux calculations for a one meter width perpendicular to the wind ranged from 124 to 2707 g s^-1 with a median value of 600 g s^-1. These values compared favorably with previous flux calculations over the Mesa from microwave radiometer and tower wind measurements. Maximum possible precipitation rates were calculated from the flux estimates by assuming all available SLW was uniformly precipitated over 10 km. These precipitation rates varied from a low of 0.04 mm h^-1 to a high of 0.97 mm h^-1. Observed precipitation rates during the aircraft missions were in the same general range. However, marked variations occurred among storms in both observed and calculated precipitation rates which suggested that the natural precipitation efficiency of the sampled clouds varied widely. Several cases may have had significant cloud seeding potential.
Authors that submit papers for publication agree to the Journal’s copyright and publication terms. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the manuscript’s authorship and initial publication in Journal of Weather Modification. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal’s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in the Journal of Weather Modification. Authors are permitted to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process to encourage productive exchanges and greater citation of the published article.
Articles are published online using restricted access for the first year. After the first year, articles are made freely available online. Immediate open access for an article may be obtained by the author paying an open access fee which is in addition to the normal page changes. Authors are expected to honor a page charge in order to support publication and distribution of the journal. After the author approves the gallery formatted version for publication, the Weather Modification Association’s Secretary will invoice the corresponding author for the page charges and payment is due within 30 days.