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Author Guidelines

Manuscripts should be submitted as digital word processor files (Open Document Format or Microsoft Office Format).  Authors need to submit articles online using the Open Journal System.  The Journal Editor may be contacted by email using

All manuscripts should be formatted as single column document using a common easily-readable 12 point font. Figures and Tables can either be included within the text after the figure is first discussed in the article or inserted at the end of the document, following the reference list.  Table captions go above the tables and figures captions go below the figure.  All figures should also be submitted as high resolution images (at least 220 dpi) files that are uploaded to the site as separate supplemental files.  Images should be in one of the following formats: eps, png, gif, bmp, or tif.  Figures should use text for symbols, axis labels, and legends that is large enough so that the 3.1 inch wide figure has text that is approximately 12 point font size.  Authors may choose to submit figures that are two columns wide (6.5 inches), which will be placed at the top of bottom of Journal pages.

Titles of papers should be informative but short (preferably less than 12 words). Below the title, a blank line should be inserted followed by a comma separated list of the full name of all authors.  After each author's name, a numerical superscript (1, 2, 3, etc.) should be used to identify the different affiliations.  Following the author list, a blank line should be added before the list of affiliations.  Each affiliation should be on a different line and start with its corresponding numerical superscript (1, 2, 3, etc).  The next line should identify the corresponding author, if he article has more than one author.  Starting the line with “Corresponding Author:”, provide the author's full name and author's email address in parentheses.  A blank line should be inserted before the start of the abstract.

An informative abstract of approximately 50 to 350 words must precede the main body of each paper.  The abstract should contain numerical results and all conclusions, not just a description of the problem and methodology.  Abstracts should not contain equations or references.  All acronyms used in the abstract need to be defined on their first usage.  The manuscript should be divided into sections of approximately 300 to 2,000 words each.  Each section should start with an arabic-numbered heading that is flush left, be in all capital letters and have bold fonts.  Subsection headings should be decimally numbered, use capital letters for the first letter of all main words, underlined all words in the heading, and be flush left.  Leave one blank line before and after all headings, between paragraphs, and place one blank line between each of the references in the reference listing.  Acknowledgments (of financial support, provision of data, loan of equipment, advice, etc.) should be given in a final section of the manuscript that precedes the References section.

Captions should completely describe what is presented within a table or figure. Tables and figures, with their caption, should be understandable independent of the text discussion.  Hence, all acronyms and symbols used in a table or figure need to be defined in the caption, even if it has been defined previously in the text discussion.  The text should discuss the interpretation and conclusions resulting from all tables and figures presented in a manuscript.  Every reference in the reference list should be cited at least once in the text.  Each reference should be generally available, as in the library of a large university.  Contract reports, conference preprints, in-house publications, and similar material may be cited only if easily available from a public source, or if the author guarantees to supply copies upon request.  The style of references should follow that of American Meteorological Society Journals. References should give author(s) (last name first for first author only, initials followed by last name for subsequent authors), year, title, journal or publisher, volume and inclusive pages.  If known the article's DOI record path should be included with the reference cited. All references must be in the format noted in this guide before the manuscript can be sent to prodcution.  Well-known journal titles may be abbreviated (J. Wea. Mod., J. Appl. Meteor., Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., Amer. Geophys. Union, etc.), but others should be given in full.  Referenced material found at web sites should be listed in the reference list with the author (if known), the institution responsible for content on the web site, the website URL, and date of access.  For any reference in a foreign language, the title should be in the original language, with an English translation in parentheses.  If material is referenced from a work that has appeared in multiple editions, place and year of first publication should be given, with any reprinting identified in parentheses.

Submission Preparation Checklist

All submissions must meet the following requirements.


The 'Messages' section contains information about the Journal, messages from the Weather Modification Association, and 'In Memory' notes about people in the weather modification community.

Scientific Papers

Articles published in the 'Scientific Papers' section of the Journal of Weather Modification are peer-reviewed by experts which provide recommendation to the Journal Editor who decided if the article is acceptable for publication.  Articles should report result from using the scientific method to understand some aspect of weather modification or related field.  If reviewers suggest that an article does not have a sufficient scientific content, the Editor may suggest to authors to move the article to the Journal's Technical Notes and Corrspondence section.

Technical Notes and Correspondence

Articles published in the 'Technical Notes and Correspondence' section of the Journal of Weather Modification should be of general interest to the Weather Modification community but are generally not scientific in nature.  Reports on some technical aspects of conducting a weather modification or related field are included in this section, along with reports on a particular operational program.  Articles are  peer-reviewed with a lessor science criteria than Scientific Papers but may include two reviewers. The Editor's final determination will be based on consideration of reviewer comments and the content being of general interest to the Weather Modification community.  

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