Numerical Simulation of Cloud Seeding using a Three-Dimensional Cloud Model
AbstractThis preliminary study is concerned with the numerical modeling of cloud seeding effects in three dimensions for the deep convective cloud case of 19 July 1981 from the CCOPE field experiment. The observed cloud was relatively isolated and grew rapidly to about 11 km height. An extensive anvil was produced. For the first time in our 3D modeling efforts, a silver iodide (Agl) seeding agent is introduced into a three-dimensional cloud model. Ice and precipitation formation occurs 2 min earlier in the seeded case. Maximum mixing ratios show only slight increases (about 5% for graupel/hail) compared to the unseeded case. Domain totals of graupel/hail and rain indicate a more pronounced seeding effect, consistent with surface rainfall estimates of a 20% increase for the seeded case. For the 3D case in this study, 10% of the Agl remains unactivated, caught in a dead zone of virtually no net transport to the southeast of the cloud around 4 km AGL. The use of an inert agent, sulfur hexafluoride, for comparison purposes helps to illustrate the region of activated Agl.
Authors that submit papers for publication agree to the Journal’s copyright and publication terms. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the manuscript’s authorship and initial publication in Journal of Weather Modification. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal’s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in the Journal of Weather Modification. Authors are permitted to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process to encourage productive exchanges and greater citation of the published article.
Articles are published online using restricted access for the first year. After the first year, articles are made freely available online. Immediate open access for an article may be obtained by the author paying an open access fee which is in addition to the normal page changes. Authors are expected to honor a page charge in order to support publication and distribution of the journal. After the author approves the gallery formatted version for publication, the Weather Modification Association’s Secretary will invoice the corresponding author for the page charges and payment is due within 30 days.