Testing of Dynamic Cold-Cloud Seeding Concepts in Thailand Part I: Experimental Design and Its Implementation
AbstractDynamic, cold-cloud, seeding concepts are being tested in Thailand in the context of the Applied Atmospheric Resources Research Program (AARRP). This work was conducted under a contract with the Bureau of Reclamation as part of a U.S. Agency for International Development-sponsored program to upgrade Thailand’s weather modification capability.. The AARRP is a component of Thailand’s national program of weather modification under the direction of the Royal Rainmaking Research Development Institute (RRRDI). Part I focuses on the design and execution of the Thai, exploratory, randomized, cold-cloud experiments and on the conceptual model that is guiding these investigations. The treatment units for these experiments are the convective cells, which contain cloud towers that meet the liquid water and updraft requirements. In the Thai design, it is the cell that receives the on-top silver iodide treatment, and any effect of seeding should manifest itself first on this scale before it is seen in the experimental unit that contains the cells. The experimental unit consists of the small multiple-cell convective system located within a radius of 25 km and centered at the location of the convective cell that qualifies the unit for the first treatment. Evaluation of the experiments is to be accomplished using an S-band (10-cm) radar that is located near Omkoi in northwestern Thailand. Fifteen experimental units (8 Seed and 7 No Seed) have been obtained to date, and they appear to be well-matched. Bias does not appear to have been a factor in the selection of these random cases and in the subsequent cloud treatments. Evaluation of these units and the convective cells contained within them is presented in Part II.
Authors that submit papers for publication agree to the Journal’s copyright and publication terms. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the manuscript’s authorship and initial publication in Journal of Weather Modification. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal’s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in the Journal of Weather Modification. Authors are permitted to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process to encourage productive exchanges and greater citation of the published article.
Articles are published online using restricted access for the first year. After the first year, articles are made freely available online. Immediate open access for an article may be obtained by the author paying an open access fee which is in addition to the normal page changes. Authors are expected to honor a page charge in order to support publication and distribution of the journal. After the author approves the gallery formatted version for publication, the Weather Modification Association’s Secretary will invoice the corresponding author for the page charges and payment is due within 30 days.