Comparisons of Lohse Wing-Tip Nuclei Generators and Burn-in-Place Pyrotechnics in the North Dakota Cloud Modification Project


  • Bruce A Boe North Dakota Atmospheric Resource Board State Water Commission Bismarck, North Dakota
  • Paul J DeMott Department of Atmospheric Sciences Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado


The characteristics of the ice nucleating aerosols produced by the Lohse wing-tip generators are compared to those produced by the Weather Modification Group WMG-1 formulation burn-in-place flares. The relative output and operating cost of each device are examined. The circumstances in which each seeding method is likely to be optimal are explored using simple thermodynamic considerations and a microphysical parcel model. On a cost basis, the WMG-1 pyrotechnic is found to offer an order-of-magnitude advantage at temperatures near -6°C, while the Lohse generator offers a similar advantage at temperatures of -10°C. Some complications for operational hail suppression projects are suggested.




Scientific Papers