11-Year Warm Cloud Seeding Experiment in Maharashtra State, India

Authors

  • A. S. R. Murty Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • A M Selvam Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • P. C. S. Devara Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • K Krishna Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • R N Chatterjee Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • B K Mukherjee Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • L T Khemani Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • G A Momin Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • R S Reddy Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • S K Sharma Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • D B Jadhav Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • R Vijayakumar Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • P E Raj Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • G K Manohar Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • S S Kandalgaonkar Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • S K Paul Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • A G Pillai Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • C P Kulkami Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • S S Parasnis Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • A L Londhe Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • C S Bhosale Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • S B Morwal Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • P D Safai Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • J M Pathan Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • K Indira Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • M S Naik Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • P S. P. Rao Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • P Sikka Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • K K Dani Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • M K Kulkami Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • H K Trimbake Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • P N Sharma Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • R K Kapoor Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • M I. R. Tinmaker Physical Meteorology and Aerology Division Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology

Abstract

A warm cloud modification experiment was carried out during the 11-summer monsoon (June - September) seasons (1973-74, 1976, 1979-86) using a double-area cross-over design with area randomization. An instrumented aircraft was used for the cloud physical measurements seeding. Finely pulverized salt (sodium chloride) particles were released into and the monsoon clouds (stratocumulus and cumulus) during aircraft penetrations into the clouds at a height of 200-300 m above the cloud base. The warm cloud responses to salt seeding were found to be critically dependent on the cloud physical characteristics e.g., vertical thickness and the liquid water content. When clouds having (i) vertical thickness > 1 km, and (ii) LWC > 0.5 g m^3 were seeded with salt particles (modal diameter 10 um, concentration 1 per liter of cloud air) produced increase in rainfall of 24 percent significant at 4 percent level. The cloud physical observations made in not-seeded (control) and seeded (target) clouds have apparently provided some useful evidence to illustrate the possibility that the hygroscopic particle seeding might accelerate the collision-coalescence process.

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