Weather Modifiation, Inc. Beechcraft King Air C90A approaches the next cloud turret during a seeding mission near Lacombe, Alberta as part of operations for the Alberta Hail Suppression
Project on 21 July 2015. Image taken by Mike Torris.
The satellite image of Australia (centre image) is a "Bureau of Meteorology image from the Japan Meteorological Agency geostationary satellite GMS-4". The image was taken on 9 January 1992. Centre image - Summary of cloud seeding operations and experiments conducted in Australia to date, experimental areas marked on satellite image.
Upper left - Headquarters, with C-band radar and tower in background, of the West Texas Weather Modification Association, San Angelo, Texas. (Photo courtesy George Bomar)
Upper right - The South Dakota School of Mines & Technology T-28 aircraft collected cloud physics data in 1994 as part of the Texas Weather Modification Project (it was supported by Texas Water Commission Grant No. 4200000082 and NSF Grant No. A TM 9104474). (Photo taken by William Woodley)
Bottom photo shows a map of the Texas Weather Modification Program (see Bomar et al., pg. 9)
Top left: P-51 cloud seeding aircraft, located in Belle Fourche, SD, 1962.
Top right: Apache aircraft, used in 1965 by the Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, for cloud sampling measurements of the Black Hills in the South Dakota area.
Bottom left: T-6 aircraft with pilot, Charles Nelson, as part of the North Dakota Pilot Project carried out in McKenzie Co., North Dakota, 1972.
Bottom right: Beaver aircraft with pilot, Fred Anderson, used for AgI and salt seeding as part of the North Dakota Pilot Project carried out in McKenzie Co., North Dakota, 1972.
(Cover photos courtesy Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology)
From a series of 38 photographs taken during a hygroscopic flare seeding event focused on orographic cumulus over the San Joaquin River watershed in California’s southern Sierra range. (See paper in this volume.) Photos trace the dramatic change in cloud and precipitation dynamics through the hours of 1531 to 1842. Seeded cloud remains stationary while smaller cumulus clouds merge with the primary cell. This seeding event, and several other similar hygroscopic field experiments conducted by Atmospherics Incorporated over the past several years, simultaneously produced large quantities of 5-6 mm diameter graupel (snow pellets) and 3-5 mm diameter frozen droplets (hail), all reaching ground level. The latter have opaque centers surrounded by clear ice, suggesting hygroscopic seeding application may act as a catalyst for producing hailstones.
(Cover photos courtesy Tom Henderson, Atmospherics Incorporated, July 1996)
(Cover photo courtesy Roger Reinking, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)
A tomadic mesoscale convective system (MCS) covers most western North Dakota as shown in this infrared satellite image recorded at OOZ 29 June 1989. The North Dakota Cloud Modification Program, an operational hail suppression project which relies on airborne seeding of developing convection, employed real-time satellite imagery to assist decision making. The coldest cloud tops (cream color, about -55"C) were associated with hail of up to 1.75 inch diameter. Though the MCS moved through the heart of one of the NDCMP operational districts, only three of the twenty-eight hail reports received came from within that district. (For more information, see paper by Boe and Jung.)
Image processing by Edmond W . Holroyd, III.
Fires: red and orange
Cloud temperatures: white and gray > 0°C; 0°C > green > -20°C; -20°C > blue.
See paper by Holroyd and Super for further details.
This year marks the first time in the 35 year history of the Weather Modification Association that a meeting has been organized in any county beyond the United States, Canada and Mexico. Because of its lengthy and auspicious background in cloud physics research and weather modification operations programs, France was an appropriate candidate for this "first" in WMA history.
The various areas of France, and the programs conducted by French scientists, are not new to many WMA members. Examples of memorable events include the Instrumentation Conference in Lannemezan (September 1967) and the International Cloud Physics and Weather Modification Conferences in Clermont-Ferrand (August 1980). Within our scientific community these meetings have always provided the WMA members with enthusiasm and encouragement for both research and applied activities.
The cover of Volume 17 was chosen in support of the WMA September meeting Clermont-Ferrand and Toulouse. These cities boast the Institutet Observatoire de Physique du Globe, Observatoire du Puy de Dome (Clermont-Ferrand) and the Association Nationale D'Etude et de Lutte Contre les Fleaux Atmospheriques (Toulouse). The maps on the Journal cover show these cities located in southern and south-central France, certainly within some of the loveliest rural areas in the world.
The Association is grateful to our French colleagues for providing the opportunity.
Olin H. Foehner, Jr., was lost at sea while scuba diving near St. Martin in the West Indies, May 27, 1983. During his active and productive career, Olin was a strong proponent of weather modification operations and research programs at the international level. With the Bureau of Reclamation in the U.S., Olin served as the first Director of the Sierra Cooperative Pilot Project. He exerted a leading role in the initial planning and design of the SCPP until he was reassigned as Director of the Colorado River Enhanced Snowpack Test. While SCPP Director, the project moved from the initial planning stage to the full design phase. During the same period, the project’s field office was established at Auburn, California, the Skywater X Conference was held, the Sierra Ecology Project was initiated in cooperation with the Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, and a variety of cooperative activities were initiated with the states of Nevada and California, several universities and private sector groups. Olin’s energy, his dedication to the long-term Skywater objectives, and his appreciation of new ideas contributed immensely to the programs and success of the SCPP and other Bureau of Reclamation weather modification programs under their Division of Atmspheric Resources Research. As a professional and good friend, many colleagues will miss both his expertise and good humor.
Profesional and Scientific Societies: Professional Engineer - Colorado, American Society of Civil Engineers, Denver Federal Center Professional Enginers Group, Western Snow Conference, Weather Modification Association
Top row: Dr. Vincent J. Schaefer making CN measurements on the north end of Hokkaido Island, Japan. Burn units on the large Meteotran lannemezan, France. Cloud seeding pyrotechnics burning on the aircraft rack. U.S.A.
Center row: Israeli cloud seeding aircraft. Tel Aviv, Israel. Bruno Federer and rocket launch on Grosversuch IV Program. Switzerland. M. T. Abshaev and large weather modification radar system. Nalchik, Soviet Union.
Bottom row: Cloud seeding aircraft at end of day. U.S.A. Radar system on operation program. Vallenar, Chile. Airborne silver iodide generator. Canberra, Australia.
Atmospherics Incorporated photographs by: Thomas J. Henderson