Effects of Artificial and Natural Cirrus Near the Ground on Temperatures Clouds
AbstractThe effects of thin to moderately thick cirrus clouds on daytime air temperature rise or nighttime air temperature fall near the ground can be approximated as linearly proportional to the change in solar heating, or nocturnal radiative cooling, of the surface, produced by the clouds. It is estimated that a uniform overcast of cirrus with a thickness comparable to an average aircraft contrail will reduce daytime heating by I0 to 20% and nighttime cooling by up to 50% compared to the heating and cooling that would have occurred in cloudless conditions.
Authors that submit papers for publication agree to the Journal’s copyright and publication terms. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the manuscript’s authorship and initial publication in Journal of Weather Modification. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal’s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in the Journal of Weather Modification. Authors are permitted to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process to encourage productive exchanges and greater citation of the published article.
Articles are published online using restricted access for the first year. After the first year, articles are made freely available online. Immediate open access for an article may be obtained by the author paying an open access fee which is in addition to the normal page changes. Authors are expected to honor a page charge in order to support publication and distribution of the journal. After the author approves the gallery formatted version for publication, the Weather Modification Association’s Secretary will invoice the corresponding author for the page charges and payment is due within 30 days.