The Kenya hail suppression program
Keywords:Weather Modification Operations
AbstractBeginning in October 1967, an operational hail suppression program was initiated in an area located some 130 miles northwest of Nairobi, Kenya, East Africa. The project was supported by private companies which have approximately 45,000 acres of select tea in production. Within the operational area, average precipitation is about 71 inches and hail on the ground is experienced on more than 200 days per year. During the period October 1967 through January 1975, silver iodide was applied by aircraft at cloud base in the inflow area identified be relevant to that volume of cloud which gives birth to, and allows growth of, hailstones. Program design included a rate of silver iodide application sufficient to produce ice nuclei concentrations of 100 - 1,000 per liter effective at -15 C within this important hail producing volume of cloud. A total of 1582 operational days and 2,910 seeding flight hours have been logged. More than 5,700 individual cumulus cells have been seeded. In comparisons of hail damage from seeded and non-seeded cumulus developments, the average damage to tea has apparently been reduced by approximately 40%.
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