Hail Suppression in the Hudson Valley, 1956 and 1957
AbstractFrom July to September 1956 and May to September 1957, a hail suppression program was conducted over the Hudson Valley area in New York, sponsored by The Hudson Valley Crop Services Co-op. Voluntary contributions from apple growers throughout the Hudson Valley, and others, supported operations of the Weather Modification Company of San Jose during both seasons. Equipment included one cloud seeding aircraft, a network of 75 to 77 ground generators, and a 3 cm radar system. Within these two seasons, a total of 69 storms moved through the lludson Valley area and 700 individual cells were logged by the radar. Major hail events were produced by cells embedded in frontal associated squall lines in 1956 and mostly from air mass thunderstorms in 1957. Hail damage was reported over some 1% of the total target area in 1956 and about 6% in 1957.
Authors that submit papers for publication agree to the Journal’s copyright and publication terms. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the manuscript’s authorship and initial publication in Journal of Weather Modification. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal’s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in the Journal of Weather Modification. Authors are permitted to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process to encourage productive exchanges and greater citation of the published article.
Articles are published online using restricted access for the first year. After the first year, articles are made freely available online. Immediate open access for an article may be obtained by the author paying an open access fee which is in addition to the normal page changes. Authors are expected to honor a page charge in order to support publication and distribution of the journal. After the author approves the gallery formatted version for publication, the Weather Modification Association’s Secretary will invoice the corresponding author for the page charges and payment is due within 30 days.