Aircraft Penetrations of Swiss Hailstorms -- An Update
AbstractAn armored T-28 aircraft was used to make observations of the interiors of Swiss hailstorms during the summers of 1982 and 1983. The main objective was to determine the presence of any accumulations of supercooled raindrops in the so-called "Big Drop Zone." The principal finding was that extremely few supercooled raindrops were found in the Swiss storms. On the other hand, concentrations of ice particles, principally in the form of graupel, were of the order of 10^3-10^5 m^-3. Since there were so few supercooled raindrops, attempts to glaciate them by seeding in order to reduce the potential for hail do not appear to be appropriate. The observations strongly suggest that an ice process is the predominant precipitation mechanism.
Authors that submit papers for publication agree to the Journal’s copyright and publication terms. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the manuscript’s authorship and initial publication in Journal of Weather Modification. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal’s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in the Journal of Weather Modification. Authors are permitted to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process to encourage productive exchanges and greater citation of the published article.
Articles are published online using restricted access for the first year. After the first year, articles are made freely available online. Immediate open access for an article may be obtained by the author paying an open access fee which is in addition to the normal page changes. Authors are expected to honor a page charge in order to support publication and distribution of the journal. After the author approves the gallery formatted version for publication, the Weather Modification Association’s Secretary will invoice the corresponding author for the page charges and payment is due within 30 days.