Some Historic Hail Suppression Programs Dating to 1967

Authors

  • Thomas J Henderson Atmospherics Incorporated Fresno, California

Abstract

Operational (non-experimental) programs designed to reduce hail damage by vairous cloud seeding techniques using artificial ice nuclei have been conducted for more than 30 years.  Six of these historic programs operated in quality fashion are summarized.  Each was designed around the application of silver iodide by aircraft flying at cloud base and/or near cloud tops.  In a few cases, the airborne application of seeding material was supplemented by a network of ground generators.  In each case, ground-based radar systems were used to direct project operations.  The reviewed programs include operational areas in the states of New York, Colorado, Texas, and Utah, plus the countries on Kenya and Greece.  Various methods of evaluation are discussed and results suggest reductions in hailfall within a broad range of probabilitites.

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Scientific Papers